Database management is a system of coordinating the information that supports a business’s operations. It involves storing data and distribution to users and application programs and then modifying it if necessary and monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from being damaged due to unexpected failures. It is a part of the informational infrastructure of a business which supports decision-making, corporate growth, and compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with other companies developed the first database systems. They evolved into information management systems (IMS), which allowed large amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a variety of purposes. From calculating inventory to supporting complicated financial accounting functions, and human resource functions.

A database is tables that are organized according to a certain pattern, for example, one-to-many relationships. It uses primary keys to identify records and allow cross-references between tables. Each table has a variety of fields, referred to as attributes, that represent facts about the data entities. The most popular type of database that is currently in use is a relational model designed by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This design is based on normalizing the data, making it simpler to use. It is also simpler to update data since it doesn’t require the modification of various databases.

The majority of DBMSs support a variety of databases, offering internal and external levels of organization. The internal level deals with cost, scalability, and other operational issues, like the physical layout of the database. The external level is the way the database is represented in user interfaces and other applications. It could include a mix of different external views based on different data models. It also could include virtual tables that are computed using generic data in order to improve the performance.